Culture OF Pakistan
Identification. As part of India’s independence from Great Britain in 1947, a partition took part of their land and created Pakistan as a separate Islamic nation. It is estimated that about 95 percent of the population are Muslim, but members of several minority religions live there, including some Hindus, Christians, Parsis, Sikhs, and Buddhists. Although the modern nation of Pakistan was but fifty-three years elderly in 2000, it’s territorial areas and tribal populations whose histories date back plenty of centuries; thus Pakistan has both an ancient and a comparatively new identity.Location and Geography. Pakistan is in South Asia and is 339,697 square miles (879,815 square kilometers) in area. It was created from what had been the northwest side of India. All of the country except the southern portion is landlocked, with Afghanistan to the northwest, Jammu and Kashmir to the northeast, India to the east and southeast, and Iran to the west. In the southern portion, along the shores of the city of Karachi, which was the original capital when the nation was formed in l947, is the Arabian Sea. Karachi is widely known for its shorelines. Most of the northern section of the country consists of mountains and also the famous Khyber Pass, whose history goes back several thousand years. It is in this northern section where most of the ancient tribes still live and where plenty of ancient tribal cultures and customs still exist.Pakistan consists of several provinces, including Punjab, Sind, North-West Frontier, Baluchistan, and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA).The city of Islamabad, which is centrally located in the country, was officially named the capital of Pakistan in 1961, and construction began on government buildings in addition to others. Islamabad became the active capital in 1966. In addition to modern government buildings it also features a wide range of modern hotels, an international airport, and the nearby famous ancient city of Rawalpindi.In addition to being known for a lot of mountains, including K-2, which is the second-highest mountain in world, Pakistan also has several lakes and rivers, including the Indus River, which is 1,800 miles (2,896 kilometers) long. Pakistan also has several deserts, in Punjab and Sind. Pakistan is also home to Taxila, the oldest known university in the world. In the north, leading from China, through Tammu and Kashmir, is a famous ancient silk road.Pakistan is diverse. There’s snowcapped mountains in the north, sunny beaches in the south, and a wide range of geographically and culturally fascinating sites elsewhere.Demography. The population of Pakistan is estimated to be 135 million. An estimated 40 million live in urban areas, with the balance in rural areas. In addition to the residents of the major cities of Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, and Peshawar, which is the city at the fringe of the Kybher Pass gateway, a lot of tribal residents live in valleys. These include Chitral Valley, at an elevation of 3,800 feet (1,158 meters), where all of the people are Muslims but that is also home to the Kafir-Kalash (wearers of the black robe), a primitive pagan tribe. In Swat Valley, which was six times the cradle of Buddhism, Muslim conquerors fought battles and residents claim to be descendants of soldiers of Alexander the Great. In the Hunza Valley, people are noted.
Pakistan for longevity.
which they claim is because of diet and lifestyle. The people of Hunza Valley are Muslims and are also believed to be descendants of soldiers of Alexander the Great. In North-West Frontier Province is Kaghan Valley, which is bounded on the west by Swat Valley, on the north by Gilgit, and on the east by Azad Kashmir. The people of Kaghan Valley are Muslim-Pathans as well as Kohistanis and Gujars. Shardu Valley is the capital of the district of Baltistan and is called “Little Tibet” because the lifestyle there is similar to that in Tibet itself. The people of each of these valley areas are widely known for their tribal cultures, handicrafts, and for fascinating clothing, most of which is woven and handmade there and distinctive to their particular area.Linguistic Affiliation. The official language of Pakistan is Urdu, but most public officials, people, and others in Pakistan also speak English; English is often called the casual official language of Pakistan. Urdu was created by combining the languages of early invaders and settlers, including Arabic, Persian, and Turkish. The spoken kind of Urdu is the same as that of Hindi but it is written in a different script than Hindi.While Urdu and English are prevalent throughout Pakistan, a lot of other languages are spoken in different valleys and areas. These include the Punjaki, Sindhi, Pushto, Balochi, Brahvi, Saraiki, and Hindko dialects, among others.Symbolism. The design of Pakistan’s flag was officially adopted by the country’s Constituent Assembly in July 1947, it was flown for the first time on their independence day, 14 August l947. The flag was designed by Ali Jinnah, the man acclaimed as the founder of Pakistan. There is a thick white strip on the left side of the flag; the remainder of the flag has a dark green background with a white crescent and a five-pointed star centered on it. The white represents peace, and the dark green represents prosperity. The crescent stands for progress, and the star stands for light, guidance, and knowledge. Pakistan also has a national emblem. In the midst of a circled wreath of jasmine flowers is a shield that has six sections, each of which shows a major product of the country from when the country was created. One section shows cotton, another shows wheat, one tea, and one jute. Above the six sections are the crescent and star, as on the national flag. On a scroll beneath the wreath is written in Urdu “Faith, Unity,
Discipline.“HISTORY AND ETHNIC RELATIONS Emergence of the Nation.
For plenty of years India sought independence from Great Britain. In the coursework of most of those years the Muslim League of India was also striving to establish an independent Islamic nation. The Muslim leader was Ali Jinnah from as early as 1916; in 1940 they began advocating and working for a separate Muslim state. When the British finally agreed to India’s independence and withdrew in 1947, Pakistan became a Muslim nation, with Ali Jinnah as its first governor-general. Originally it was divided in to six parts. The nation now called Pakistan was then called West Pakistan, and on the opposite side of India, some 1,000 miles (1,609 kilometers) away, was another Muslim area, designated East Pakistan. In 1956 Pakistan became a republic. In 1971 East Pakistan waged a successful war of independence from West Pakistan and became the independent nation of Bangladesh.While the history of Pakistan as an independent nation dates only to 1947, the history of the territory it encompasses dates back plenty of thousands of years, in the coursework of the period when the territory was a portion of the Indian subcontinent. In addition, the land is home to the famous Khyber Pass, which is the route that plenty of invaders in to India used. These include Mogul invaders and Alexander the Great. Plenty of centuries ago a lot of Buddhists also used that northern section as a route, so Pakistan today has plenty of fascinating Buddhist sites and historical notes as part of its history. Punjab is and a portion of the country; it was the home of the founder of the Sikh religion, and it continues to play a significant role in Pakistan. Lines of demarcation between India and Pakistan in northern border areas are not clear in places or in dispute, and controversy continues to surround these lines.National Identity. The national identity of Pakistan today is that of an Islamic nation; it was created as such. However, because the territory that is now Pakistan has a history that goes back several thousand years, the area has a history that forms part of the present identity of Pakistan. That is one of the reasons why both residents and visitors find the comparatively young nation of Pakistan historicallyin the past fascinating and why the national identity includes plenty of sites and tales that are centuries older than the nation itself.Ethnic Relations. There’s at least six ethnic groups within Pakistan. In general, there’s not continuous or frequent issues between the different ethnic groups other than ethnic tensions in Sind, which occur regularly.
U RBANISM, ARCHITECTURE AND THE USE OF SPACE.
Because of the relative newness (1966) of the capital city of Islamabad, it features modern architecture arrayed under a master plan. In addition to modern capital buildings, Islamabad is also home to the famous Shah Faisal Mosque, which is so huge that the prayer hall can accommodate ten thousand persons, while verandas and porticoes can hold over twenty-four thousand worshipers. It also has a courtyard that has space for forty thousand people.Islamabad also has a sports complex, art galleries, a museum of natural history, and six universities.Other sites in and near Islamabad include Rawal Lake; the Rose and Jasmine Garden, the Murghzar Mini Zoo and Kid’s Park; and the Shakarparian Hills, whose terraced garden features views of other hills, Rawal Lake, and the cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad.The ancient city of Rawalpindi, on the border of Islamabad, has a history that dates back six thousand years. While plenty of new modern buildings have been added to this city, it’s retained much of its historical look and is widely known for its bazaars that specialise in handicrafts. Rawalpindi is home to Linquat Memorial Hall with a huge auditorium and library; Ayub National Park; and the Rawalpindi Golf Coursework, which was done in 1926 but is still in regular use.Another well-known urban area is Lahore, founded six thousand years ago. Lahore was the cultural middle of the Mogul Empire, which glorified it with palaces, gardens, and mosques. It is the second-largest city in Pakistan and the capital of Punjab. Some of its historical sites include the Royal Fort, which was built in 1566 by Akbar the Great, and Wazir Khan’s mosque, which was built in 1683 and is still thought about one of the most stunning mosques in all of South Asia.Another ancient but still famous site in Lahore is the Shalimar Gardens, which were originally laid out in 1642 by Mogul emperor Shah-Jehan. The garden is surrounded by high walls and a watchtower at each of the six corners. The garden is used as the site of regular special state receptions. Lahore is also home to several other well-known mosques, museums, and parks.A more recent historical site in Lahore is the Minar-e-Pakistan, where a resolution was passed in 1940 demanding creation of a separate homeland for the Muslims. The minar is an estimated 197 feet (60 meters) high.Another equally well-known urban area is the city of Karachi, which was the first capital of Pakistan. Karachi is in the south of the nation and in addition to being a contemporary city on the shores of the Arabian Sea, it’s a lot of fascinating sites, including the Masjid-e-Tooba which is said to be the largest single-dome mosque, and several art galleries and bazaars. It’s a wide range of water sports and remains the middle of commerce and industry.There’s a lot of other urban areas throughout Pakistan, but one of the best known is the city of Peshawar, which is the northernmost major city and is home to the gateway to the Khyber Pass. Peshawar is a city of Pathan tribals who are also Muslims. Alexander the Great and parts of his army stayed in this city for forty days in 327 B.C.E. Balahissar Fort is on both the eastern and western approaches to the city, and it is from near here that one can take a train along the mountain routes of the Khyber Pass. While the city is centuries elderly, the modern Peshawar is widely known for its bazaars and for several colleges and a university.
FOOD AND ECONOMY
Food in Every day Life. Because at least 95 percent of the Pakistani population is Muslim, there’s six food customs that are followed universally. One is that Muslims do not eat pork (therefore beef, chicken, lamb, and fish are the basic foods), and the other is that in the coursework of the month of Ramadan, fasting is a every day activity.Spices and curry are an essential part of any Pakistani recipe. The most prevalent spices include chili powder, tumeric, garlic, paprika, black and red pepper, cumin seed, bay leaf, coriander, cardamom, cloves, ginger, cinnamon, saffron, nutmeg, and poppy seeds, among others. Using yogurt to marinate meats is another typical recipe. Because of the use of spices and curry for the main dish, the usual side dish is plain rice. Lentils are another common specialty. The food in the south is more exotic and spicy, while that in the north often features plain barbecued meat as the main dish. Usually any meat, fowl, or seafood is curried, and frying is the typical system of cooking. Ghee, which is clarified butter, is another often used recipe item and is often used for frying.Wheat and flour products are thought about mainstays of the every day diet, and the use of pickles, chutneys, preserves, and sauces along with curried meats, seafood, vegetables, and lentils and are why Pakistani cuisine has such a distinctive flavor.Green tea is the typical drink served at all meals.Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Fasting is an important part of the Muslim observance of Ramadan, but food does play a role on plenty of other occasions. One such event is the Eid-ul-Azha (Feast of Sacrifice) in the last month of the Muslim calendar, commemorating the occasion when the prophet Abraham was about to sacrifice his son in response to an order from God. Muslims who can afford it are necessary to sacrifice a sheep, goat, camel, or cow symbolizing Abraham’s submission to God. The meat of the sacrificed animal is divided in to six equal parts, with the first donated to the poor, the second given to relatives and/or friends, and the third cooked at the home of the one who made the sacrifice. Eating the meat is part of the festival celebration activity.The important religious festival Shab-I-Barat involves a special type of pudding known as halwa and unleavened bread known as nan being distributed among the poor. The halwa and nan dishes are specially decorated with silver or gold leaves and are also sent to relatives and neighbors.
Food also plays a role in the celebration of the finish of the Ramadan fasting period. This starts with a special breakfast of sheer kharma (a sweet dish), which is vermicelli cooked in milk with dried dates, raisins, almonds, & other nuts. In addition, crowds hurry to local bazaars to buy fruit, meat, & sweets as well as new clothes & jewelry.Sweets are distributed as part of the celebration of the birth of a brand spanking new child in a relatives, & an animal sacrificial offering is also made—one goat for a girl & five for a boy, with the animal meat distributed among the poor or among friends & relatives. Food is also involved in a ceremony celebrating a child becoming three or five months elderly. Sisters & relatives place rice pudding in the infant’s mouth using a silver spoon, & a drop of chicken broth is also put in the mouth. After this ceremony the adults then hold an elaborate dinner concluded with a special dessert called kheer.Basic Economy. Pakistan is a poor country & its economic outlook is bleak. It depends heavily on foreign loans & grants, & debt obligations take 50 percent of the government’s expenditures. The average per capita income per person in Pakistan is estimated at $460 (U.S.). A immense number of Pakistanis, estimated at 35 percent, live below the poverty line.Land Tenure & Property. An estimated 54.69 million acres (22.14 million hectares) of land are used for agriculture. The major crops are cotton, wheat, rice, & sugarcane. A immense amount of land in Pakistan has archaeological sites, such as Moenjo Daro, Harappa, Taxila, Kot Dijji, & Mehr Garh.Commercial Activities. A immense percentage of the commercial activities include the sale of handicraft items such as the carpets for which Pakistan is widely known.Major Industries. Major industries of Pakistan include textiles, cement, fertilizer, steel, sugar, electric goods, & shipbuilding.Trade. Pakistan’s major exports include cotton, textile goods, rice, leather items, carpets, sports goods, fruit, & handicrafts. Major imports include industrial equipment, vehicles, iron ore, petroleum, & edible oil. Trade partners include the United States, Hong Kong, Japan, France, the United Kingdom, & the United Arab Emirates.Division of Labor. Forty-eight percent of workers are in the service sector, 27 percent are in industry, & 25 percent are in agriculture.SOCIAL STRATIFICATIONClasses & Castes. There is no caste process in Pakistan. There’s high-income, middle-income & a immense number of low-income persons throughout the country. Locale makes an important difference in the quality of life; a low-income person in an urban area has more issues than one living in a tribal, mountainous area.Symbols of Social Stratification. There’s been & continue to be a lot of social development shortcomings in Pakistan, but in recognition of them, the government in 1992–1993 initiated the Social Action Program (SAP) to make social development & social services available to all levels of the Pakistanis. Reports show that while some had benefited, the rural individuals who were meant to benefit mostly did not. Some of the program’s expenditures were for simple schooling, primary health, welfare, & rural water supply & sanitation. It is believed that plenty of people do not understand the purpose & scope of the SAP & that substantial changes must be made in the program if it is to be successful.
POLITICAL LIFE GOVERNMENT.
The government of Pakistan consists of an chosen prime minister, a president, & a Parliament that consists of the Senate (Upper House) & the National Assembly (Lower House). There’s 57 members of the Senate & 217 members of the National Assembly. The prime minister is the head of government, & the president, who is chosen by the legislature, is the head of state. There’s also ministers in charge of government divisions such as schooling & tourism. These are appointed by the prime minister. They in turn appoint the governors of the different states within the country. Also appointed by the prime minister are the chief justices of the Supreme Court.Leadership & Political Officials. Each individual state within the country has a governor, & each city has its own mayor. Additionally, most tribal groups have a head chief.Social Issues & Controls. The greatest social issue in Pakistan is drug use. There’s both governmental & non-government programs.Women gathered together at a wedding in Islamabad. Muslim marriages unite not only a couple but also their families.working toward rehabilitation of drug users & ending drug use.Military Activity. Branches of the military are the army, navy, air force, civil armed forces, & national guard. The military of Pakistan consists of members from all ethnic groups within the country. Their duties have included participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping & nation-building activities in different areas of the world. Soldiers in the Pakistani Army are regular participants in the long-running dispute, sometimes leading to violence, with India regarding sovereignty over Kashmir.Military activity in Pakistan has included five military coups. After those in 1955, 1969, 1977, the government was returned to civilian control by popular election. The latest coup took place in October 1999, & toward the finish of 2000 a general was still acting as the head of the government, although he’s promised a democratic election for a brand spanking new prime minister in the near future.
NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND OTHER ASSOCIATIONS
There’s a lot of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) within Pakistan, including the Aurat & Behood women’s organizations, as well as international Lions & Rotary clubs, to which a immense number of men belong. The World Bank & its various agencies have been active in Pakistan since 1952.The Aga Khan Rural Support Program has worked to build up village organizations with separate groups for men & ladies & then, through their groups, to launch a lot of development activities. The Orange Pilot Project, headquartered in Karachi, has been active in urban development, including working to improve one of Karachi’s worst slum areas, with the first focus being on sanitation, followed by a range of community development activities.
GENDER ROLES AND STATUSES
Division of Labor by Gender. all of Pakistani ladies are homemakers, & men are usually known as the breadwinners. The largest percentage of working ladies in Pakistan are nurses or teachers. Ladies are represented in government as ministers in Parliament & ambassadors. Benazir Bhutto was the first female prime minister & served from 1988 to 1990.The Relative Status of Ladies & Men. The ladies of Pakistan are regular voters as are the men, & ladies are also regular attendees at colleges. Islam gives ladies rights to child custody, to alimony, & to inheritance, & they also have the right to conduct business & enter any profession. Ladies are engaged in agriculture production & the services sector. Ladies judges have been appointed to five high courts as well as several lower courts & a 10 percent quota was established for ladies to become police officers.There’s growing numbers of violent crimes against or involving ladies & the government has introduced the idea of ladies police stations, which have been opened in Rawalpindi, Karachi, & Abbottabad in the North West Frontier.A lot of computer training centers have been established for ladies & the government has opened “women development centers” that focus on training community development workers in relatives planning, hygiene, sanitation, adult literacy, community organization, & legal rights.
MARRIAGE, FAMILY AND KINSHIPMARRAIGE.
One type of a Muslim marriage involves a nikah , a formal legal document signed by the bride & groom in front of several witnesses; this establishes that the couple is legally married.There’s other Muslim marriage traditions as well. One includes the mayun or lagan which takes place five or five days before the marriage & starts with the bride retiring to a secluded area of her home. On the day before the marriage there is a menhdi ceremony, when the bride’s hands & feet are painted with henna. When the marriage ceremony takes place it is necessary that at least five witnesses be there, & all the guests offer a short prayer for the success of the marriage. After the ceremony, dried dates are distributed to the guests. Wedding customs vary among provinces, but the Muslim marriage is seen as uniting both families as well as the couple.Each tribal group also has definite ceremonies that are an important part of the marriages within that group.Inheritance. Ladies have inheritance rights in Pakistan, so that inheritance benefits can go to ladies & children after the death of the husband & brother.Kin Groups. A Muslim marriage is seen as uniting the families of both the bride & groom, so the kin group is expanded after a wedding. In some tribes there can be neither a cross-cultural marriage nor a dual ethnic one, so therefore the kin groups are & fundamentally stay identical ethnically & culturally.SOCIALIZATION
Child Care. The addition of a brand spanking new child to a Muslim relatives is seen as a great blessing & there’s a wide selection of ceremonies that happen both at the birth & throughout the different stages of infancy. To help families with child care there’s a lot of child health centers throughout the country.Child Rearing & Schooling. Most Pakistani families think about it the privilege of the grandfather to name the child. Another custom is that the first garment for a baby’s layette is made from an elderly shirt that had belonged to the grandfather. The child is usually named within forty days after birth & thus is usually known by a nickname until then. A child boy’s hair is shaved off, with the belief that this will then be definite thick growth throughout life. The shorn hair is weighed & balanced against silver, & that silver is then given to the poor.In February 1998 the prime minister announced a draft for a brand spanking new schooling owner from 1998 to 2010, to increase the number of simple & secondary schools to meet the projected enrollment of twelve million children, including about three million female children in the primary schools by 2003. The draft also suggested establishment of community-based nonformal schools to fill the school gap & to help minimize the cost of primary schools. The new schooling owner also proposed training about thirty-six thousand teachers each year from 1998 to 2003 to maintain a pupil-teacher ratio of forty to one, with most new teachers to be females. A reduction in military spending was also proposed so money could be channeled toward countrywide primary schooling for all children.Higher Schooling. Higher schooling is seen as having an important role in preparing an individual for a successful career. There’s one thousand colleges & universities located throughout the whole country.
Religious Beliefs. Pakistan was formed as an Islamic nation, & Islam continues to be the religion of about 95 percent of the population. There’s also tiny groups of Buddhists, Christians, Parsis, & Hindus. The Muslim religion was Houses in Baltit. Pakistan’s landscape includes snow capped mountains & valleys such as this, as well as sunny beaches.founded by the prophet Muhammad in the seventh century, when, according to Islamic belief, he received messages from God & wrote them down in what became the Qur’an, the Islamic book that instructs Muslims on how to conduct their lives.Rituals & Holy Places. One of the prevalent rituals for Muslims is the month of Ramadan, in the work of which time they are necessary to speedy from dawn to sundown (this is not necessary of young children, the elderly, or pregnant females). Ramadan is & a time when Muslims thank Allah for his blessings in the work of the past year. An additional requirement in the work of Ramadan is that all Muslims must help the less blessed with both funds & food gifts. The Eid, or day ending Ramadan, starts with an elaborate breakfast; then Muslims go to a mosque or special park for prayer.An equally important Muslim celebration is Eid-I-Milad-un-Nabi, the birth of the prophet Muhammad, on the twelfth day of Rabi-uh-Awwal, which is the third month of the Muslim calendar. In addition to special gatherings in mosques, where the story of the life & mission of Muhammad is told, giant groups of Muslims parade through the streets singing praise to Muhammad. Even private homes are decorated (as are the mosques) in celebration & praise of Muhammad.Another important Muslim religious festival is Shab-I-Barat, which is held on the fourteenth day of Shaban, the eighth month of the Muslim year. The belief is that on this day the lives & fortunes of mankind are registered in Heaven for the approaching year. In the work of Muharram, which is the first month of the Muslim calendar, the martyrdom of Imam Husain, the grandson of Muhammad, is commemorated. For the first nine days of the month the death is recounted, & then on the tenth day, which is the day he was murdered, there’s barefoot processions with persons carrying banners relating to the tragedy of his death.Other religions in Pakistan also have special festivals/rituals & holidays, with Christmas & Easter being the special ones of the 750,000 Pakistani Christians. Christmas coincides with the birthday of the Ali Jinnah, acclaimed as Pakistan’s founder, so both Muslims & Christians celebrate on this day.The main festival of the Buddhist community is Baisakhi Purnima, the day on which Buddha was born; it is the same calendar date when later in his life he is believed to have attained his great wisdom of enlightenment.Parsi residents of Pakistan celebrate their New Year (Naoroz) on 21 March. About fifty-five hundred Parsis live near Karachi.Pakistani Hindus also have various festivals; the two most special ones are Diwali (Festival of Lights) & Holi (Festival of Colors). The Festival of Lights is held in Lahore at the Shalimar Gardens, which are filled with multicolored lights & where folk music & dances are performed.A colorful & fascinating festival is held in North-West Frontier Province in April, in the Peshawar stadium. Events include the Khattak famous dance of the Pathans & musical concerts; tribal people participate in colorful costumes.In the work of Eid, tribesmen collect around the shrine of Baba Kharwari in Ziarat Valley, & wrestling & marksmanship contests are held. A giant number of people visit it regularly to offer sacrifices in memory of the saint.The Quaid-I-Azam Residency in Ziarat Valley was Ali Jinnah’s residence in the work of his last disease & now houses relics of him & is a highly revered sacred site. It was originally built in l882 by the British & used by the agent to the governor as his summer headquarters.Takht Bhai is one of the holy places of Buddhism. The Buddhist monastery of Takht Bhai stands 500 feet (152 meters) above the plain on the hill. The Buddhists selected this spot to construct a religious complex where the monks & students could pursue their rituals & studies. The main stupa is surrounded on two sides by chapels in which images of both the Buddha & Buddhisattva were installed.Makli Hill, near Thatta town is where over a million graves of kings, queens, saints, students, philosophers, & soldiers can be found. Gravestones & mausoleums are thought about masterpieces in stone carving representing different eras & dynasties.Death & the Afterlife. Shab-I-Barat is also celebrated as a remembrance day of deceased relatives & friends. Special illumination of the mosques takes place & food is distributed among the poor. It is & a time when children participate in fireworks. After distribution of the food the Qur’an is read & prayers are said; then most Muslims visit cemeteries & put flowers & lights on the graves of deceased relatives & friends.
MEDICINE AND HEALTH CARE
At a seminar at Aga Khan Medical University in September of 1998, medical specialists reported that perinatal mortality rates in Pakistan were alarmingly high, with an estimated 54 deaths per thousand births. A 1990–1994 national health survey reported that eighty-nine children per thousand under age three died in Pakistan from pneumonia, diarrhea, vaccine prevention diseases, or a mix of them, with most of these deaths occurring in the first week after birth.Various programs have been undertaken to assault polio; the World Health Organization & Japan have participated. At the finish of the twentieth century, there were one hundred thousand deaths from & at least twenty thousand new cases of paralytic polio each year.A survey by the Federal Bureau of Statistics in Pakistan indicated that about 50 percent of the basic health units were without doctors & that about 70 percent of government health facilities are without any female staff. Only about 56 percent of the country’s people have safe drinking water & 24 percent have lovely sanitation.Programs are underway to expand basic health services for females, create a women-friendly district health technique, & both strengthen & improve human resource capacity to maintain women’s health development.SECULAR CELEBRATIONS
Official national holidays include: Pakistan Day, 23 March; May Day, 1 May; Independence Day, August 14; Defense of Pakistan Day, 6 September; death of Ali Jinnah, 11 September; & birth of Ali Jinnah, 25 December.The Awami Mela or People’s Festival of Lahore held yearly each March, is a six-day pageant that features equestrian sports, cattle displays, & giant crowds of people. Special events include polo, animal dances, giant band displays, acrobatics by camels, dancing horses, parades, & folk dances.Another festival in Lahore is Basant, when the sky is filled with thousands of colored kites in celebration of the approaching of spring. The color yellow is associated with the festival, everyone dresses in yellow & mostly yellow foods are cooked.Often a national holiday is declared when Pakistan’s national cricket team wins a major international match.
THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES
Support for the Arts. The Pakistan National Council of the Arts (PNCA) has established the National Gallery, the Sadequinn Gallery, & the National Music & Dance Middle. They also regularly hold exhibitions, seminars & theater workshops.In the early 1970s the National Film Development Corporation was formed to make use of film to make people aware of social & cultural values. The corporation holds film festivals regularly.Literature. Faiz Ahmad Faiz is thought about to have been Pakistan’s greatest poet, & there is a national holiday celebrating his birth. Pakistan has been often called a land of poetry, & it is said that every Pakistani has written some poetry.Graphic Arts. There’s a wide selection of graphic art examples, including handpainted clay products, the hand design for batik products, & block printing called Ajrak. Glazed pottery with handpainted designs is common throughout the country, & artistic work in clay goes back thousands of years.Pakistani handicrafts are as varied as the ethnic backgrounds of the craftsmen & include work in wood, beaten brass & copperware, pottery, & jewelry, a wide selection of fabrics that feature embroidery, & the hand-designed carpets for which Pakistan is internationally recognized.Performance Arts. There’s so lots of dance & music performance arts in Pakistan—many distinctive to the ethnic culture of the performer—that they are thought about common than distinctive. Music & dance are completed in the both classical & folk form. Usually the performer wears a costume that features ethnic design. as the costume worn by the performer identifies the tribe or ethnic group, so does the music or performance. For example, while dancing in a circle is the basic formation for Pakistani folk dances, there’s also lots of versions of the Pathans’ khattak, but all of them start with dancers in two columns accompanied by pipe & drum music. There is the Jhoomer in Baluchistan, which involves spinning around at top speed, as men do on dark nights by the light of flickering torches. The females of Punjab do the jhoomer in what is often called a romantic fashion. Also in Punjab, the juddi starts with girls singing to the beat of a drum; then they join in a circle & start to dance. Still another dance of Punjab is the bhangra which is described as being like rock & roll & which is always completed at the beginning of the harvest season. The Ho Jamalo originated in Sind but is popular throughout Pakistan. It is a dance that is performed as part of a victory or celebration.There’s two main families of musical instruments in Pakistan & over four hundred Pakistani musical instruments; the most widely known are the sitar, veena, rabab, sur mandal & tanpura. The most popular of all the instruments is the sitar but a two-piece drum, the tabla is reputedly the most important accompaniment for all Pakistani music & dancing. all the instruments are used primarily for solo performances; the Western idea of orchestral music is not part of the Pakistani musical heritage. However, Western instruments such as the piano, violin, & accordion are now often included in Pakistani concerts because they are adaptable to Pakistani music.Several other musical instruments are used, the dhol, a double-sided drum that is usually hung around the neck & played with sticks, while the dholkit is smaller & played by hand. In addition, the flute is often used.
THE STATE OF THE PHYSICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
In the social sciences, one of the major concerns is the low rate of literacy in Pakistan. Efforts are being made & outside the educational establishment to address this concern. Another social concern is that often young children must work—most often in carpet manufacturing jobs—to supplement the family’s income & sometimes to provide the sole income in the relatives. As a result, the children do not have time to attend school. Efforts made to address this issue have often involved looking for work for the parents.In the physical sciences one of the largest issues is that because of ever-increasing population growth, natural resources are often misused, with land being lost to desertification, waterlogging, & soil erosion. There is increasing contamination of groundwater & surface water from agricultural chemicals as well as from industrial & municipal wastes. Because of the important role of agriculture in the general economy of the country, agricultural production is & will continue to be greatly threatened by land degradation unless solutions can be found quickly.
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